A critical cost-control area within the Postal Service is the funding of workers' compensation benefits for employees who sustain job-related injuries. It is a violation of federal criminal law for a claimant to knowingly make a false representation on an OWCP claim.

In addition to working closely with injury compensation units and Postal Service management to identify instances of suspected fraudulent claims for workers’ compensation, the OIG also investigates allegations of fraud against medical providers who support false Postal Service OWCP claims. The OIG also publicizes criminal workers’ compensation fraud to the Postal Service through an “Injury Compensation Fraud Highlights Newsletter.” The newsletter is designed to raise awareness and deter other attempts to defraud the government.