Our objective was to evaluate service performance for First‑Class Single Piece (FCSP) letter mail nationally and in 17 selected districts. This report responds to a congressional request regarding concerns of low service performance in these districts in the last month leading up to the November 2020 general election. The OIG addressed issues on election mail service performance in a prior report. This audit focuses on overall service performance for FCSP letter mail in fiscal year (FY) 2020 through March 31, 2021.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Postal Service delivered critical items such as medications, stimulus payments, Election Mail, and Social Security checks. While the Postal Service played an important role during the pandemic, its operations were not immune from the pandemic’s impact and concerns about on‑time delivery performance increased as the pandemic progressed.

The Postal Service uses an internal measurement system to evaluate its on‑time service performance and assigns root causes for failures that do not meet established delivery standards. Service standards are determined by the class of mail, where it originates, and its destination. In prior audits, we noted the Postal Service has struggled to meet mail service performance standards and had opportunities to improve operational efficiency and cost‑cutting efforts. Additionally, the Postal Regulatory Commission’s annual independent assessment of the Postal Service’s service performance for FY 2017 through FY 2020 found that the Postal Service failed to meet FCSP letter mail service performance due to issues in processing, transit, and last mile operations.

The OIG reviewed three related core functions vital to meeting the service performance target for FCSP letter mail nationally: mail processing, transportation, and delivery operations. Specifically, we conducted our review at 19 processing and distribution centers (plants) and 34 delivery units in the 17 districts outlined in the congressional request.


Nationwide service performance for FCSP letter mail dropped throughout 2020, after the onset of the COVID‑19 pandemic. Service performance scores began FY 2020 above 90 percent before significantly declining between July and December 2020 to a low of 67.43 percent at the end of December. Service performance scores started improving in January 2021 after the 2020 peak season, reaching 84.55 percent by the end of March 2021. Service performance at the 17 selected districts trended comparably with the national scores for FCSP letter mail but were lower, some far lower, than the national scores.

We found the service performance scores declined due to internal and external network impacts in mail processing, transportation, and delivery operations including employee availability challenges, increased package volumes, and a loss of transportation capacity. Specifically:

  • Some processing facilities did not have sufficient operating capacity to receive, process and stage mail when package volumes were high, resulting in bottlenecks and delays in processing and transporting the mail.
  • Some processing facilities were not able to adequately staff letter machines or dock operations or did not have a sufficient number of experienced employees, resulting in decreased efficiency.
  • To alleviate bottlenecks within the network, some processing facilities worked mail offloaded to them from other facilities. Working this mail required additional resources to process and transport the offloaded mail.
  • Implementation of the Surface Transfer Center (STC) redesign, a Postal Service initiative to reduce transportation costs and improve service through route optimization, also impacted the ability of some facilities to move the mail. The STCs contributed to dock congestion which resulted in late trips to plants.
  • Late trips declined, critically late trips increased, and mail continued to arrive late to the 19 plants from other processing facilities. As a result, facility processing schedules were not aligned to match the transportation schedules.
  • Constraints in mail processing and transportation, including the air network, prevented timely and consistent mail arrival to the delivery units. Delivery units used overtime to sort, case, and deliver mail.

Completed Mitigation Efforts

Despite these challenges, we found that Postal Service management modified normal operations in mail processing, transportation, and delivery operations to try to mitigate missed service commitments. In fact, many of the 19 plants reported they generally had no issues processing FCSP letter mail each day, but their service scores were impacted by FCSP letter mail coming from other facilities that had already missed its service commitment standard prior to arrival.

In their efforts to maintain operations in the plants and delivery units, management implemented various solutions to move the mail through the network. Some plants were more successful than others at maintaining operations and service scores. For example, some plants utilized overtime and/or management staff to complete mail processing and handling operations, while others shifted employees from letter sorting operations to work packages.

Network precision and synergy is critical to effective, timely mail processing operations across the country. Facilities that struggled with increased package volume, bottlenecks, and employee availability can impact service performance in downstream operations and at other facilities. In addition, if transportation is not available to move mail between facilities on schedule, large-scale service degradation can quickly occur.

Moving Forward

In late March 2021, the Postal Service published its 10-Year Plan, Delivering for America, which outlined its commitment to make operational changes moving forward. The plan establishes 13 key goals to achieve financial stability and service excellence. Management also communicated this plan verbally to its stakeholders. The plan includes numerous initiatives that are aligned to achieve the financial, service, and other key outcome goals. Many of these initiatives are for service improvement for the 2021 peak season, including efforts to increase package processing capacities, address transportation challenges, and improve employee retention and availability.

To further improve service performance scores across the network, management should focus on quickly identifying and addressing issues at the locations that are the source of the service delays. Monitoring key performance indicators, by setting sufficient thresholds, throughout the network can identify underperforming facilities and bottlenecks and allow management to promptly take action to address these hotspots and mitigate service delays.

Employee availability impacted operations and the Postal Service’s ability to meet service commitments. As management proceeds with their hiring efforts, they should ensure mail processing peak season hiring plans address potential COVID‑19 pandemic impacts on the job market to hire a sufficient number of employees and fully train them in time for 2021 peak season.

While these initiatives and other Postal Service Headquarters Logistics & Processing Operations actions may address the challenges experienced last year, many of these initiatives require implementation within the coming months for a positive impact on the 2021 peak season. Implementing various initiatives concurrently is challenging, and combined with any continuing employee availability challenges, could have unintentional negative impacts on the quality and timeliness of mail delivery. Before implementing operational adjustments prior to 2021 peak season that will impact their network, the Postal Service should fully study and analyze the collective impact planned changes will have on mail service. These changes should also be clearly communicated, in writing, throughout the Postal Service’s management structure to ensure consistent implementation.


We recommended the Chief Logistics & Processing Operations Officer and Executive Vice President instruct management to:

  • Develop a risk-based operational tool, with appropriate thresholds, to identify and remediate underperforming facilities or bottlenecks within the network, so they may be promptly addressed, and service delays mitigated.
  • Ensure mail processing peak season hiring plans include potential impacts from the COVID‑19 pandemic on the job market.
  • Conduct a service impact analysis for any peak season changes that incorporates ongoing effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic, expected peak season volumes, and strategies to mitigate potential operational issues.
  • Develop and implement a strategy to communicate, in writing, clear guidance on any significant operational adjustments implemented prior to the 2021 peak season to ensure message clarity and consistent application throughout the agency.

Read full report

Audit Resolution - Recommendation 1

OIG Response

Comments (10)

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  • anon

    In August I sent an application with $110 to get my passport. I just went to go track it and I have no tracking number on my receipt and no way to track this application. What's up with that? Is there anyone that can respond to help me. Or am I just going to be tossed aside. I need my passport.

    Oct 12, 2021
  • anon

    Service in Lexington SC in the Redbank area is horrendous!!! My neighborhood alone hasn't been receiving mail consistently in over 2 months. I personally have only received 4 pieces of mail since August 1st. According to informed delivery i have way more than that. My husband received his disability by mail. They will not do it any other way. We are going to end up loosing our home and everything if things to change. I have gone to the post office several times and they don't know where my mail is. I'm begging someone to please help me figure this out. Please!

    Sep 26, 2021
  • anon

    Mailed certified letters to baltimore from Delaware with an expected delivery date of 9/21/2021, still on 9/25/2021 mail still in transit this is totally ridiculous. What is the post office doing with the mail.

    Sep 25, 2021
  • anon

    mail that's supposed to be delivered to the person it's addressed to does not even show up in the post office from the mail processing facilities does not arrive @ the proper post office for mail delivery when the informed delivery says you have mail arriving soon & never shows up even to this date & time.many emails have been sent to usps customer service in regards to this matter of missing mail.the post office in connecticut with the most serious issues is meriden ct.

    Sep 23, 2021
  • anon

    for several months mail is being misdelivered in the carroll heights neighborhood. daily we delivery very private personal and very important all over the neighborhood to each other. at times we never receive the correct mail at all only to find out from creditors etc the mail had been sent. please ask our carrier to be more carefull in the delivery of our mail.

    Sep 22, 2021
  • anon

    11 days for 1st class mail delivery. My bill payments arrived late. Companies owed payment do not care if USPS is slowed down. Local bills took 9 days to be delivered.

    Sep 20, 2021
  • anon

    Haven't received very important documents mailed from Jefferson City on Aug.19th was told at post office to order another then told on phone machines may have eaten it. We are missing several pieces of mail that we know of.wevp have waited the week as was told pertaining to the uniformed app telling us mail coming, still waiting. Total disaster.especially the type of mail we were waiting for just floating around in anyone's hands

    Sep 17, 2021
  • anon

    Thank you for the opportunity to give my comment regarding the services of the Post office. My experience has been a disaster trying to received mail first class and even certifiy letter. While I was told 1-3 days to deliver , in the first instance, it took 10 days to send a letter to Philadelphia PA . In the second instance, two very important letters were mailed on Aug 24, and Aug 25 and still ,have not as of yesterday the sEPT 11 RECEIVThank ED IT .

    Sep 12, 2021
  • anon

    That's right some of us need to be paid for what happened because it's uncalled for how the post office some of them allow ed to happen what happened on missing the packages and placing them elsewhere and then bringing some and leaving some

    Sep 10, 2021
  • anon

    Service in Memphis is horrible! I have direct tracking info on a first class piece that arrived here in town and took 3 months to deliver to me!

    Sep 09, 2021